Clojure CLI 101

2014-06-05 ·

The most convenient way of running a Clojure program is by creating a single, standalone JAR file. It can be easily distributed and executed by end users without the need of installing additional dependencies.

lein provides uberjar command that does most of work. There are, however, few details that have to manually set up.

Let's start by creating an app with lein new [name]

lein new app

First, specify the main class namespace with :main and ensure it is compiled ahead of time (AOT) with :aot.

(defproject app "0.1.0"
  ...
  :uberjar-name "app-standalone.jar"
  :aot  [app.core]
  :main app.core)¬

AOT can be also enabled only for the uberjar using profiles (thanks to Jan Stępień for the tip).

(defproject app "0.1.0"
  ...
  :uberjar-name "app-standalone.jar"
  :profiles {:uberjar {:aot [app.core]}}
  :main app.core)

Optionally, you can specify the name for the jar that will be produced with :uberjar-name. For the list of possible Leiningen parameters that can be used in projects.clj check the following sample.project.clj.

Next, tell Clojure to produce that main class from a (previously chosen) namespace using :gen-class in its declaration along with -main function defined inside.

(ns app.core
  (:gen-class))

(defn -main [& args]
  (println args))

Finally, run lein uberjar and then

java -jar target/app-standalone.jar param1 param2

It should produce: (param1 param2).

app-standalone.jar provides interoperability, which means that this file can be moved to other computer with Java installed and run on it the same way without the need to install additional dependencies.

tools.cli provides tools to handle more complex scenerios while working with command line arguments.

Let's start by adding it as a dependency to project.clj

(defproject app "0.1.0"
  :main app.core
  :aot [app.core]
  :dependencies [[org.clojure/clojure "1.6.0"]
                 [org.clojure/tools.cli "0.3.1"]])

Next, modify core.clj

(ns app.core
  (:require [clojure.tools.cli :refer [parse-opts]])
  (:gen-class))

(def cli-options
  ;; An option with a required argument
  [["-p" "--port PORT" "Port number"
    :default 80
    :parse-fn #(Integer/parseInt %)
    :validate [#(< 0 % 0x10000) "Must be a number between 0 and 65536"]]
   ;; A non-idempotent option
   ["-v" nil "Verbosity level"
    :id :verbosity
    :default 0
    :assoc-fn (fn [m k _] (update-in m [k] inc))]
   ;; A boolean option defaulting to nil
   ["-h" "--help"]])

(defn -main [& args]
  (parse-opts args cli-options))

Recompile with lein uberjar and run

java -jar target/app-standalone.jar param1 -h -v -p 40 param2 --invalid-opt

It should produce

{:options {:help true, :verbosity 1, :port 40}, :arguments [param1 param2], :summary   -p, --port PORT  80  Port number
  -v                   Verbosity level
  -h, --help, :errors [Unknown option: "--invalid-opt"]}
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